Module 09 – Special Senses

This Forum relates to chapter 12 in our text. Review
September 6, 2020
This reflective assignment is designed
September 6, 2020

Question 1

  1. Kari is a relatively healthy 42-year-old female with well-managed diabetes. She reports occasional alcohol intake, smokes cigarettes only when drinking, and exercises 3-4 times a week. She has a history of mild myopia, which she has corrected with glasses and contacts since she was 14 years old. Kari has been having trouble seeing at night. It has been gradually getting worse and she was tripped on a rug and bumped into a few walls within the last week. She has also noticed that small text seems blurrier than usual. Kari always makes sure to schedule annual visits to her eye doctor. Luckily, it’s almost time for this year’s check-up because she thinks she might need a new prescription for her glasses and contacts.

    Kari’s mild myopia means:
She has trouble seeing objects at a distance.
Light is focused behind her retina.
She has trouble focusing on objects close to her face.
Light is focused on the fovea centralis.

1 points  

Question 2

  1. Of the limited history you are given, which item could NOT be related to the vision issues she is experiencing?
Smoking tobacco
Diabetes
Alcohol intake
Exercising 3-4 times a week

1 points  

Question 3

  1. Myopia becomes more prevalent as one ages.
     

True

False

1 points  

Question 4

  1. Kari has two grandparents who had glaucoma in their lifetime. Do any of Kari’s symptoms support a diagnosis of glaucoma? If so, which one(s)?

Research suggests that some factors may increase the risk of glaucoma developing, includes family history, age and myopia. Genetic factors are considered to play a key role in all major forms of glaucoma. As all these applies to Kari, she is in high risk of glaucoma. Noticing blurry vision while reading small text and gradual decrease in her eye sight could be sign of glaucoma.

https://www.glaucoma.org/glaucoma/the-genetics-of-glaucoma-what-is-new.php

Question 5

  1. Kari’s ophthalmologist measures her intraocular pressure and finds that it is normal. With this information, which of the following diagnoses can be ruled out?
Glaucoma
Hyperopia
Myopia
Cataracts

1 points  

Question 6

  1. During her annual visit, her doctor asks Kari for more specific information regarding her current symptoms. Which of the following symptoms would NOT be suggestive of cataracts?
Trouble with bright lights
Loss of peripheral vision
Faded colors
Halos around lights

1 points  

Question 7

  1. A cataract consists of clouding in which structure?
Cornea
Lens
Retina
Sclera
   

Question 8

  1. Over the next several months, Kari’s eyes begin to look like this:

    Considering her history and symptoms, which of the following conditions is most likely?
Cataracts
Glaucoma
Presbyopia
Hyperopia

1 points  

Question 9

  1. If Kari is diagnosed with glaucoma, what is the most likely treatment? Describe the treatment briefly, in your own words.

Depending on Kari’s conditions, most likely her treatment starts with prescription eye drops which will help her reducing eye pressure. If eye drops alone don’t bring eye pressure down to the desired level, doctor may also prescribe an oral medication. She may have to go through other treatment options such as laser therapy and various surgical procedures.

Reference

https://www.medicinenet.com/glaucoma/article.htm
https://www.glaucomafoundation.org/treating_glaucoma.htm

Question 10

  1. If Kari is diagnosed with cataracts, what is the most likely treatment? Describe the treatment briefly, in your own words.

If Kari is diagnosed with cataracts, most likely her treatments starts with glasses or contracts. If her eye conditions worse and if this is causing problem in her daily life, she may need cataracts surgery. Normally, surgery are done on an outpatient basis, meaning Kari can go home same day. Procedure has very success rate. During procedure, the surgeon will remove her lens and replace it with a man-made one. More than 95% of people who have done this procedure, has better vision.

Reference

https://www.webmd.com/eye-health/cataracts/what-are-cataracts#2
     

1 points  

Question 11

  1. Maddie is a 6-year-old female with no prior history of major medical issues. She complained of right ear pain after an awkward head-first fall from a diving board yesterday. She landed in the pool and did not seem to have any apparent physical injuries, so her parents assumed she had headache from the impact and gave her acetaminophen. However, the pain persisted for a full day, so her parents have taken her to her pediatrician. Her parents have noticed that she is less responsive when speaking to her from her right side and are worried that she has suffered hearing loss from the fall.
     
    Maddie’s physician explains that there are different types of hearing loss. Damage to which of the following structures would cause conductive hearing loss?
Semicircular canals
Vestibule
Tympanic membrane
Cochlea

1 points  

Question 12

  1. Maddie’s physician explains that there are different types of hearing loss. Damage to which of the following structures would cause sensorineural hearing loss?
Incus
Tympanic membrane
Cochlea
Malleus

1 points  

Question 13

  1. When Maddie’s physician examines her ear, he explains to her parents that she has a perforated eardrum. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
Maddie has sensorineural hearing loss due to the perforated eardrum.
Maddie’s eardrum will likely heal on its own and she will not need surgery.
A perforated “eardrum” means that there is a tear or hole in Maddie’s tympanic membrane.
Maddie is at higher risk for ear infections due to the perforation.

1 points  

Question 14

  1. Maddie’s doctor performs tuning fork tests to help determine the source of her hearing loss. Which of the following tests compares bone conduction to air conduction?
Weber test
Rinne test

1 points  

Question 15

  1. If Maddie’s hearing loss persists after her perforation is healed, which of the following scenarios is likely?
Maddie suffered sensorineural AND conductive hearing loss from the head injury in the pool.
Maddie will continue to lose hearing bilaterally as she ages.
Her hearing loss is genetic and will be passed on to her future children.
Maddie will likely lose hearing in her left ear, too, but less severely.

1 points  

Question 16

  1. Medicine or surgery can often fix which type of hearing loss?
Sensorineural hearing loss
Conductive hearing loss

1 points  

Question 17

  1. Which of the following is a common cause of sensorineural hearing loss?
Cerumen build up
Aging
Ruptured tympanic membrane
Fluid trapped in the middle ear

1 points  

Question 18

  1. Identify and explain (in your own words) at least one possible complication of Maddie’s perforated eardrum.

A perforated “eardrum” means that there is a tear or hole in Maddie’s tympanic membrane. A ruptured eardrum not only results in hearing loss but also add complication as it make middle ear vulnerable to infections or injury. A middle ear infection often results in the accumulation of fluids. Pressure from these fluids can cause the eardrum to rupture.

Reference

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/ruptured-eardrum/symptoms-causes/syc-20351879

Question 19

  1. Which of the following structures is not part of the physiology of hearing?
Auditory canal
Incus
Utricle
Cochlea

1 points  

Question 20

  1. A ruptured tympanic membrane DIRECTLY affects the movement/vibration of which ossicle?
Incus
Stapes
Anvil
Malleus
 
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