Phi103 Test

March 12, 2020
Spanish / Lección 7 Estructura 7.1 / 1 – ¿Lógico O Ilógico?
March 12, 2020

Question 11 pts
A common misconception about inductive arguments is that they __________.
are weak or strong
are more persuasive than deductive arguments
go from specific to general
go from general to specific

Flag this QuestionQuestion 21 pts
Which of the following is true about combining deductive and inductive reasoning?
One should never try to combine the two, but should make the best choice of which one to use.
If an argument has inductive and deductive elements, then the overall argument is generally deductive.
The argument fails to adequately support its conclusion.
If an argument has inductive and deductive elements, then the overall argument is generally inductive.

Flag this QuestionQuestion 31 pts
Inductive arguments aim for this type of connection between their premises and conclusions.
A true connection
A probable connection
A methodological connection
An absolute connection

Flag this QuestionQuestion 41 pts
Inference to the best explanation is often expressed in which invalid argumentative form?
Denying the antecedent
Affirming the consequent
Denying the consequent
Affirming the antecedent

Flag this QuestionQuestion 51 pts
One way to make an inductive argument weaker is to __________.
strengthen the conclusion
eliminate the conclusion
make the argument valid
strengthen a premise

Flag this QuestionQuestion 61 pts
This philosopher claimed that science should focus on falsifiability rather than confirmation.
Karl Popper
Friedrich Nietzsche
Ludwig Wittgenstein
Galileo

Flag this QuestionQuestion 71 pts
What type of inductive argument is the following example?

The garbage cans were not picked up today; it must be some kind of holiday.
Argument from analogy
Inductive generalization
Statistical syllogism
Inference to the best explanation

Flag this QuestionQuestion 81 pts
Which of the following is true of the distinction between induction and deduction?
Inductive reasoning means going from the specific to the general; while deductive reasoning is the reverse.
Inductive reasoning means going from the general to the specific, while deductive reasoning is the reverse.
Some forms of inductive reasoning go from the specific to the general, while others go from the general to the specific.
Deductive reasoning never has a general conclusion.

Flag this QuestionQuestion 91 pts
When conducting a survey, it is important to choose a sample that __________.
is valid
has members with the same views
is intelligent
is random

Flag this QuestionQuestion 101 pts
The margin of error is __________.
the percentage of a population that expresses a trait that is being studied
something that is not important in statistical arguments
the a likely range of difference that one can expect between the sample and the whole population
usually greater with larger sample populations

Flag this QuestionQuestion 111 pts
Which of the following is necessary in order for an explanation to be adequate?
It does not agree with other human knowledge.
It provides an overly complex solution.
It is noncircular.
It is contradicted by other instances.

Flag this QuestionQuestion 121 pts
What is the word for an argument that is inductively strong and has all true premises?
Cogent.
Sound.
Valid.
True.

Flag this QuestionQuestion 131 pts
Mill’s methods claim that if two or more cases share the same effect and share only one common characteristic, then this characteristic may be related to the cause of the effect. Which of Mill’s methods does this describe?
Method of agreement
Method of difference
Joint method of agreement and difference
Method of concomitant variation

Flag this QuestionQuestion 141 pts
What type of inductive argument is the following example?

Every Eagles record I have heard has been great, so probably all of their albums are great.
Argument from analogy
Inductive generalization
Statistical syllogism
Inference to the best explanation

Flag this QuestionQuestion 151 pts
What does it mean for an argument to be cogent?
It is valid and sound.
It is inductively strong and has all true premises.
It has a structure that is intended to be valid.
All of the above.

Flag this QuestionQuestion 161 pts
If thing A is always true whenever thing B is, then ____________.
B is a sufficient condition for A
A is a sufficient condition for B
A and B are both sufficient conditions for each other
None of the above

Flag this QuestionQuestion 171 pts
In the “What is a ‘Strong’ Argument?” video, what is the line at which we call an argument logically strong?
There is no strict line at which inductive arguments become strong; it is a matter of context.
It is strong if it confers a 90% likelihood on its conclusion.
It is only truly strong if the conclusion is absolutely certain.
It has all true premises and the conclusion is likely.

Flag this QuestionQuestion 181 pts
Using the hypothetico-deductive method how does one go about trying to test a hypothesis?
One deduces a consequence from it and tests whether it occurs.
One seeks tests that will verify its truth.
One avoids situations in which the hypothesis might fail.
One changes the hypothesis to fit the data.

Flag this QuestionQuestion 191 pts
Which of the following is the weakest example of causal reasoning?
Claiming that a rock broke the window when one finds a shattered window and a stone in one’s living room
Claiming that the caffeine from the coffee one drank at 10 p.m. made it hard to sleep
Claiming that one got into a car wreck because someone was texting
Claiming that one lost a bet because a black cat walked across one’s path

Flag this QuestionQuestion 201 pts
According to one of Mill’s methods, if there is only one factor that is present in a case in which the effect is seen and absent in cases in which it is not seen then that factor may be causally related to the effect in question. Which of Mill’s methods does this describe?
Method of agreement
Method of difference
Inductive reasoning
Method of concomitant variation

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