This section Your answer here should comprise no more than about 2-3 pages, single- spaced.Polybius, fragment of book 10, on the character of Scipio

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This section Your answer here should comprise no more than about 2-3 pages, single- spaced.Polybius, fragment of book 10, on the character of Scipio

This section Your answer here should comprise no more than about 2-3 pages, single- spaced.Polybius, fragment of book 10, on the character of Scipio:It is generally agreed that Scipio was beneficent and magnanimous, but that he was also shrewd and discreet with a mind always concentrated on the object he had in view, would be conceded by none except those who associated with him and to whom his character stood clearly revealed.In this course, Scipio has appeared numerous times as an avatar of sorts for things to come foreshadowing the demise of the Republic. What, in your view, connects Scipio, and his time, and Octavian/Augustus, and his own time? What similarities, and differences, do you see? Using this basic comparison/contrast, provide your own evaluation of our major course theme: the political struggle between the state and the individual. Be sure to justify your answers by making reference to specific examples from the course readings and class notes, and to argue a specific position. Your answer might cover the careers of other important figures (e.g. Marius, Cleopatra, Caesar), or major themes (e.g. the development of Roman imperialism and its consequences), but the organisation of your argument is wholly up to you.May.15th lecture 4
First punic war: 264-241
–Result: 20 years of war
–Would need sth special from Rome or Carthage
to win
–Carthage: mercenaries, but good navy
–Rome: excellent army, no
well-established naval force
–Result: statement
Trireme
–3 banks of oars
–Corvus (boarding ramp)
Quinquereme is heavier, 5 banks of oars

Naval warfare in ancient world
n Rams
n Immobillisation
–roman idea: make it a land
battle, on water

–board using corvus/raven (but problems)

–grapnel

–physically seize enemy ships, or ram them
–armoured
sailors cannot swim very well
Polybius, on the corvus
–Roman shipbuilding
program-superhuman effort
–But now, had to learn how to
fight at sea-no real experience
–Would have plenty of upsets,
errors (storms too)
— in the meantime:
–256: 2 consuls
Africa; ambitious, war on Carthaginian territory
–Plunder of countryside; 1 cos.
Home, Other remained:
–Marcus atilius regulus
–255: defeated Carthaginians;
camped at Tunis
–Negotiations, rejected by Rome
–Spartan mercenary, Xanthippus-
replaced local commanders
–Romans crushed; regulus
captured
–romans crushed; regulus
captured
–With regulus- what is true and
what is legend?
–Deal with humiliation by
mythologizing it!
–Ex. Romans defeated b/c of
massive snake
–Legend- in captivity until 250
–Gave parole to Carthaginians;
sent to Rome to negotiate
–In his speech to senate- urged
no surrender
–Returned to Carthage
met his end
–Regulus: reluctant here,
duty> personal need
–source: Horace-reliable?
–Ode 3.5; titled, no surrender

–Warning to lax romans of his own day

–Holds up regulus as ideal model
–Intensely
patriotic in period of civil war
–Regulus death
–Xanthippus, and the leaky ship
–All of this: Romes north
African invasion- not a success
–More setbacks for Rome
–254: fleet to Africa, rescue
survivors
–Defeated Carthaginian fleet,
but then massive storm
–Romans massive effort at
Panormus-Sicily
–250: lucius caecilius metellus,
army, crushed Carthaginian attack
–Huge triumph in rome, with 100
elephants
–But then chickens
Drepanum, 249, western coast of
sicily
Publius Claudius pulcher
–Frustrated by progress of siege
of Carthaginian base at lilibaeum (western Sicily)
Decided to take offensive
Auspieces: the sacred chickens
Let them drink, since they dont
want to eat
Result: romans suffered horrible
defeat
Pulcher accused of sacrilege for
killing scared chickens
–War dragged on to an end with
reverses/benefits for each side
–241: Romans finally achieved
naval victory, off Sicily
–Carthaginian commander: Hamilcar
peace treaty
–Indemnity: triggered mercenary
revolt
–The truceless war savage
–Rome took opportunity: Sardinia
–Carthage shattered
–Sent Hamilcar Barca (father of Hannibal)
to Spain rebuild
Would
lead to new struggle

Consequences of the war
Four main consequences
1. Carthage lost Sicily, Sardinia,
paid reparations

–Rome now held territory outside of Italian peninsula
–Lead
to garrisons on Sicily, Sardinia and also Corsica
–Needed
administrators: praetorshipexpanded, sent overseas
2. widescale change in conduct of
warfare


 

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